Adverse effects of Infliximab

Similar to any other drug, this one also shows some side effects if taken regularly. Some users even discontinue the use of infliximab because of its side effects. Apart from common side effects like headache and rashes, some infusion-related problems are also observed in some cases. Dyspnea and flushing are also seen in most of the patients. Along with these common side effects, some important things one must know about infliximab usage are listed below.

Immunologic side effects

According to researchers, this type of side effects was shown in more than 36% of patients. Sinusitis, bronchitis and other respiratory infections can also occur because of prolonged usage of infliximab. Even in case of psoriasis patients also, some users reported skin ulceration and bacterial infections. In some cases, this medicine complicated the matter instead of treating it. Though researchers are yet to come to conclusion, in some clinical trials patients died because of miliary tuberculosis. If infliximab was used in Crohn’s patients the situation becomes worse. The body itself develops anti-dsDNA antibodies and in most of the cases, this development stopped once the treatment is discontinued.

Respiratory related side effects

Use of infliximab can become fatal also. If histoplasmosis was observed in the initial stages, it is better to stop using this medicine. Usually this side effect can be noticed within six months if the medicine not suits you. Lower respiratory tract infections are observed in significant percentage and interstitial lung disease is also observed in some cases.

Others side effects

  • Hypersensitivity is also observed in psoriasis patients in more than 1% of cases. Though the percentage seems to be negligible, the number will be very high if taken it in absolute numbers. Doctors prefer the term serum sickness to notify this. Rashes, fever etc. were observed in psoriasis patients. In most of the cases, these symptoms were observed in less than 2 days after using the medicine infliximab.
  • Neurological side effects are also observed while using these medicines but they are not severe. In most of the cases, patients suffering from these disorders return to normal once they had stopped the usage.
  • Vasculitis skin rashes were also observed in most of the cases after giving infliximab infusions. Skin lesions and acne were observed in some of the cases.
  • Abdominal pain and vomiting were also reported in some cases. Intestinal obstruction because of excessive use of infliximab was reported in rare cases.
  • Patients who are treated with higher doses of infliximab are more prone to heart diseases when compared to normal. In most of the cases, patients develop heart related diseases after administering infliximab medicine therapy for six months.
  • More severe and fatal conditions like acute liver failure, cellulitis, immunity levels dropping etc. were also observed.
  • Cytomegalovirus infection and loss of water levels in the body occurs in the rarest of the rare occasions.

Some other common side effects

  • Excessive sweating at night.
  • Loss of appetite or feeling full even after eating very less quantity.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Increase in heart rate.
  • Flu infection symptoms.
  • Weak sensations in arms and legs.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Hair loss.
  • Pain while passing urine.
  • Scaly skin rashes.

Psoriasis treatment

Infliximab is one of the approved medicines for psoriasis. Doctors from several parts of the world still prefer this medicine in the treatment of Psoriasis. By binding the TNF-α cytokine, infliximab controls the auto immune reactions and it is helpful in treating psoriasis. To know more about this, first we have to know the reasons for the occurrence of psoriasis. Also, there is an urgent need to know some facts about this disease as this is spreading rapidly in the developed countries even though it is not contagious.

Psoriasis is a special skin condition where the growth of skin cells increases rapidly and forms epidermal layer of skin. In case of normal persons, skin cells were replaced with new ones automatically after one month (28-30days in most of the cases). However in case of psoriasis patients, the number of days drops to 5 and in some cases, new skin cells will appear in three days period also. According to researchers, main reason for occurrence of psoriasis is premature keratinocytes maturation. This triggers the T-cells to attack healthy skin cells which in turn develop new skin cells quickly to compensate the loss. By binding TNF-α cytokine, the whole process can’t get reversed but the inflammation sensations are surely reduced. Apart from these medicines one need to follow some life style changes for quick and effective results.

Lifestyle changes

  • Over exposure to sun leads to skin burns which in turn increases psoriasis. Though UVB Radiation is helpful in treating psoriasis, excessive exposure is harmful and it is better to wear sunglass, hat etc. while going out in day light. Applying sun screen lotion with minimum SPF15 is also helpful.
  • Some users reported that by stopping high glucose foods, rashes and itching sensation increased. So it is better to follow the guidelines of doctor or nutritionist instead of eating foods as per your preference.
  • Try to cover the skin affected areas as much as possible. The social embarrassment increases once your colleagues or office staff came to know that you are suffering from psoriasis.
  • Weather changes play a crucial role in increasing/decreasing psoriasis. Change your dressing style, food habits and exercise patterns based on weather conditions and this will surely reduce the adverse effects of psoriasis.
  • Psoriasis has strong hereditary connection. If your parents are suffering from psoriasis, there are more chances that you may also suffer from this disease. So take precautions so that you won’t suffer from this irritating disease.
  • Psoriasis in most of the cases leads to social isolation and depression. If you are suffering from psoriasis, to avoid these problems by joining in any recreational club and be in touch with other psoriasis patients. You can find several dedicated psoriasis forums online.
  • If you are suffering from mild psoriasis, there is no need to worry. If you are suffering from moderate or severe psoriasis, opt for professional treatment methods and if your budget permits and doctor recommends, it is better to go for biologic drugs.











Vamana Karma – A perfect herbal treatment for Psoriasis

It is always better to know the reasons for the occurrence of the disease before proceeding for treatment. Same is the case with psoriasis also. You may wonder after knowing the fact that even today, there is no medicine available to cure psoriasis completely. That’s the reason why several psoriasis patients are preferring natural method to treat psoriasis. According to one belief, more than 10 million from EU and more than 7.5 million from USA are suffering from psoriasis. These numbers may go up significantly if you consider African or South American regions. Ayurveda is an herbal medical procedure which is very popular in the Indian and Sri Lankan regions. People from several parts of the world are coming to these places to get treatment for psoriasis and other skin related disorders.

Psoriasis – Kaphaj disorders

In Ayurveda each and every disorder can be categorized in any one of the five categories. According to Ayurveda experts, psoriasis come under Kaphaj disorder cattery and effective treatment is there in Ayurveda for this disease. Kaphaj is one of the five Pradhana disorder types.

Diet Changes

Diet changes play a key role in any disease treatment and if you opt for herbal medical procedures you need to be more careful. In case of Ayurveda treatments strict diet to be followed whatever the treatment may be. Onions, ginger etc. have to be avoided. Spicy food should not be taken. One must follow the exact diet pattern prescribed by the Ayurvedic doctor. Packed foods are not at all allowed. Even in adverse circumstances also you need to eat fruits and vegetables only if you opt for herbal or Ayurveda treatment. To get rid of the itching sensation also these diet changes will surely help.

In the Vamana karma procedure, a special diet is followed for psoriasis patients. Doctors usually prescribe some special food items to perform medical vomiting. Tough there are no scientific proofs to suggest that this procedure works, most of the psoriasis patients are very much happy with the results. Even some herbal topical ointments that are useful to reduce the inflammation sensation are also prescribed. In the opinion of Ayurveda doctors, these creams are also helpful in removing the scaly red paths. The moisture content present in them will help in keeping the skin moist in the infected regions and this immensely helps reducing the pain also.

Some effective methods suggested by Ayurvedic doctors:

  • Drinking buttermilk and applying curd on the effected region is helpful in keeping the skin moist.
  • Controlling the natural urges increases the psoriasis complexity. That’s the reason why vomiting, passing urine or stools need to be done whenever you feel so.
  • Easily digestible food is preferred so that the burden on your abdominal can be reduced.
  • Bitter gourd, pumpkin are should be included in your diet.
  • Chicken, meat, beef and eggs should be avoided.
  • Foods that are rich in Zinc and Vitamin E will fasten the healing process.
  • Using gram flour or herbal scrubber is preferred instead of artificial soaps.
  • Even in case of itching sensation also, don’t prick, peel and scratch skin.
  • Patients suffering from psoriasis must use hygienic towels and washed clothes.
  • Bathing in sea water is proved to be effective in most of the cases.
  • Aloe Vera cream has the capabilities to reduce the irritating sensation and applying the same on the infected regions is proved to be very effective.
  • A glass of bitter gourd juice has to be taken on empty stomach and add a spoon of fresh lemon juice if you can’t drink it as it as.
  • Relaxation processes like breathing exercises need to be practiced daily.


Unlike the regular medical practice where doctors prescribe some medicines to reduce the effect of any disease; yoga is an integral part of Ayurveda and doctors prescribe some special exercises in treatment of any disease in Ayurveda. So as a part of treatment doctors prescribe some exercising activities to patients who are suffering from psoriasis also. These exercises will also help in reducing the stress which increases the psoriasis affected skin area exponentially.

Cost effectiveness

Herbal treatments are most effective even from economic point of view also. One needs to spend close to $30,000 if you opt for biotech treatments in any of the European countries or America. You can get the treatment for psoriasis by spending not even half as far as Ayurvedic treatments are concerned. If you opt for general treatment, you need to spend more to reduce the side effects also which is not the case with herbal treatments. You won’t find any side effects in the herbal treatment procedure and no user reported any significant changes in their daily activities or regular health after opting for Vamana Karma procedure of Ayruveda.

Similar to any other medical practices, following the daily activity schedule given by doctors is the key here. Even if you miss a day medical activity also, the time to heal increases considerably and keep this in mind before opting for herbal treatment.

Changes in day to day activities

It is important to follow some lifestyle changes so that the effect of treatment increases tremendously. These methods are helpful in controlling the psoriasis even if you opt for other treatment procedures also.

  • Use of full sleeved dress, hats and sunglasses will help in protecting the skin from harmful sun radiation. Even though some doctors suggest that the UVB radiation is helpful in treating psoriasis, over exposure to sun leads to skin burns which in turn increases psoriasis.
  • Any natural treatment procedure won’t allow use of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. If you are a psoriasis patient and you have bad habits like smoking and drinking, natural treatment is not that much effective.
  • Be positive throughout the treatment. This is a crucial aspect in the treatment as most of the psoriasis patients suffer from depression because of this skin disease. Some patients even face problems in doing their day to day activities also and in such cases, try to mingle with your groups as much as possible.



Human embryonic stem cells for Psoriasis treatment

Those who don’t know anything about human embryonic stem cells, the name itself give some clues. As the cells are derived from Embryos, they are called embryonic cells. Usually they are collected from vitro fertilization procedure and not directly from woman’s body. Growing these cells in the artificial environment is a complex procedure. Now a days, most of the internationally popular laboratories are capable of growing cells in the artificial environments. Do you want to know how scientists are able to generate cells artificially?

Cell growth in laboratory

HESCs are developed from pre-implantation stage embryo. An environment filled with nutrient broth is created and it is popular as culture medium in the researcher groups. Earlier, the upper layer of the dish is coated with treated mouse embryonic skin. Later scientists found a way to replace it with more advanced system. This is a significant development as the usage of mouse skin can lead unwanted virus to grow in the culture medium. This embryonic layer is coated with nutrients so that the cells can grow rapidly.

Though the process seems to be simple, it is so complex and even scientists face difficulties in developing a pre-implantation stage embryo all the time. Instead they opt for more efficient and economical method known as sub-culturing. Each time when the dish is filled with developed cells, medical researchers divide them and transfer them into another dish so that they can multiply and develop more. This procedure is known as passage. The advantage of this method is, this process can be stopped at any stage and the researchers can use them in their experiment. It is even possible to create thousands of embryonic stem cells in very short span through this procedure.

Potential uses of human stem cells

Even doctors don’t know the 100% potential of these human stem cells. Everyone knows that they are very much helpful in knowing the complex procedures involved in the human cell development. Researchers are in the process of finding how these embryonic cells get converted into several organs. They are trying to control the development of organs so that in future they can develop defect less human organs. So, their usage is not confined to research institutes and laboratories. If the research yields positive results, even birth defects can be treated without any problems. Medical experts are in the opinion that even deadly diseases like cancer can also be treated if researches are progressed correctly.

Genetic disorders

With the help of human Embryonic Stem Cells, genetic disorders can be reduced significantly. It is possible to replace to diseased cells which are derived in the form of heredity can be controlled by changing the PGD. By introducing prenatal genetic instead of genetic maladies, several heredity problems can be solved completely. Though the idea is yet to be proved, researches are in the opinion that it will surely yield positive results. Researchers are moving at a slow pace in this direction as the genetic mutation needs to be studied perfectly or else there will be many more problems.

By 2009, only the first phase of clinical trials was completed and the results are extremely positive. In these trails, brain and spinal cord cells were replaced with new hESCs and the patients recovered quickly than normal. One must note here that the financial troubles involved in the research are stopping several researches to concentrate on this method.

Human Embryonic Stem Cells – Psoriasis treatment

Though there is no significant research done on this way, dermatologists are in the opinion that the hESCs development can significantly help in curing the psoriasis completely. Now a days, people who are suffering from moderate or severe psoriasis are opting for biologic drugs. Biologic drugs are very expensive and in most of the cases, a psoriasis patient needs to spend close to $30,000 per year on the treatment itself. If hESCs come into picture, the treatment cost will get reduced substantially and the effects are also far better when compared to biologic treatment.

How hESCs are helpful in psoriasis treatment?

With hESCs, it is possible to replace the cells in the affected area with new cells. If the researchers are able to replace to skin cells with the new ones in the psoriasis affected regions, there are significantly better chances to control the disease as well to cure the disease completely. Psoriasis occurs because of excessive growth of skin cells and if the skin cell growth is controlled the problem gets solved. The methods used to stop embryonic cells growth can be helpful here.

Researchers proved heredity connection in psoriasis occurrence. If one of the parents is suffering from psoriasis, there are 20% more chances of occurrence of psoriasis. If both the parents are suffering from psoriasis the chances increase to 70%. It is possible to reduce this percentage significantly by using hESCs. If one generation goes through this treatment, the changes of getting this (in case of future generations) skin disease reduce drastically. Unlike the regular treatment, where topical creams need to be applied daily, there is no need to follow a typical system if this treatment procedure becomes available. However there are several concerns in the medical circles over the use of hESCs in the treatment of not so complex diseases. After knowing the number of patients suffering from psoriasis, you will surely say that the researchers need to concentrate on usage of hESCs in the treatment of psoriasis.

Side effects

Most of the doctors express concerns over hESCs ability to form tumors. If they are not dealt with proper care, they can lead to cancers also. Even FDA expressed its concerns over this but no such side effects were observed in the initial clinical tests conducted by FDA. According to researches, hESCs procedure is far better when compared to IPS cells. To promote the use of cell replacement therapies, doctor groups support also needed and it is the responsibility of the researchers to clarify the doubts raised by doctors, so that they will prescribe this procedure to more patients.




Drug for serious Psoriasis tops competition – A big relief for Psoriasis patients

Do you know that the complete cure for psoriasis is not even available today also? Though doctors give treatment for psoriasis, it is limited to reducing the symptoms and discomfort caused by psoriasis and preventing the spreading of this disease to other areas. Do you know that more than 10 million people are suffering from psoriasis in European Countries only? The number of patients suffering from this disease in USA is close to seven and half million. So why researchers are not concentrating on this disease despite of exponential growth in the cases? Before knowing about the research and drugs available, it is important to know about the causes and preventive life style methods.

Psoriasis – Reasons

  • Psoriasis follows strong hereditary i.e. if your parents are suffering from psoriasis, you are more prone to it. According to researches, if one of the your parent is suffering from psoriasis, the chances of getting psoriasis is 20% more and if both the parents are suffering from psoriasis, the rate increases to 70%.
  • People whose immune system is lost due to various reasons are more prone to this disease when compared to others. That’s the reason why psoriasis is commonly seen in AIDS and Cancer patients.
  • Modern lifestyle is also a contributing factor in the increase of psoriasis cases. Exposing to sun and pollution and unhealthy habits are increasing the psoriasis cases exponentially. That’s the reason why more teenagers and young adults are diagnosing positively with psoriasis.
  • Some medicines may trigger psoriasis. Beta blockers come first in this list and beware of side effects while using these medicines.

Lifestyle changes for Psoriasis

  • Psoriasis patients often complain that their skin dries easily. It is important to keep the red and patchy skin region moist so that the itching sensation will get decreased.
  • If you bather with hot water, there are chances of increase in skin burns. So prefer cold water for bathing.
  • Doctors usually recommend topical ointments for psoriasis patients. Whatever the reason may be, don’t skip the plan and regularly apply topical creams in the effected regions.
  • Exposing to UV-B Radiation helps in the treatment of Psoriasis. Remember that over exposure to sun can increase skin burning and this indirectly leads to increase in psoriasis.
  • Unhealthy habits like smoking cigars and drinking alcohol can lead to several health disorders. If you are suffering from psoriasis and have these habits, even god can’ save you.
  • Diet plays an important role in controlling any disease. Consult a professional nutritionist and take his help in preparing your diet chart.
  • Psoriasis patients are more prone to psychological disorders. Make sure you are not one of them and spend your time in recreational activities like playing your favorite games, watching movies etc.

Psoriasis Treatment

Based on the effected region, Psoriasis is categorized into three types. They are:

  • Mild Psoriasis: If the psoriasis affected region is less than 2% in the overall skin then it is considered as mild psoriasis.
  • Moderate Psoriasis: if the effected region is in the range of 3-10%, then it is considered as moderate psoriasis.
  • Severe psoriasis: if the total effected region is more than 10% of the overall skin area, then that condition is categorized as severe psoriasis.

Most of the times, doctors recommend topical creams for the patients who belong to first two stages. Based on the complexity involved doctors may prescribe light therapy in the third stage. Medical researchers of present generation are trying hard to cure psoriasis completely and the researches they are doing are resulting in positive results. Researches done on the use of biotech treatment for psoriasis patients resulted in extremely positive results and the evolution of Ustekinumab drug should also be considered under this category.

Ustekinumab – CNTO 1275

Ustekinumab is more popular in medical circles as CNTO 1275. This was the experimental name of the project which had shown extremely positive results. The study conducted for a long duration (72 weeks) showed remarkably positive results as most of the patients observed no itching sensation and in some cases, the red patches also decreased a lot.

Psoriasis is caused by the malfunction of certain T-cells. They attack the healthy skin cells and to compensate the loss, skin cells starts growing at a faster rate than normal. This result in red patchy areas and itching sensation will there. If the patient scratches, immense pain will be there. CNTO 1275 releases certain cytokines, which regulate the function of T-cells and reverses the whole cycle. This will decrease the psoriasis from root levels.

Development of Ustekinumab

The development of this drug dates back to 2007. In 2007, 5 NIH-listed research groups came up with positive results after using CNTO 1275 for psoriasis treatment. In the December 2007 itself, BLA was filed to FDA, USA. DODAC, a sub-group of FDA approved this in 2008 and this one got final approval by FDA, USA in 2009. After that, respective authorities from Canada and European Union also accepted this drug for psoriasis treatment. As of now, this drug is available in USA, EU and Canada regions and will be available in other parts soon.

Patients are generally given 45mg or 90mg doses based on the severity of the condition. Usually a month’s gap is preferred between first two doses and from then onwards, one dosage for three months is more than enough to keep the psoriasis in control. The dosage and frequency have to be constantly monitored by medical experts or else side effects will occur. Note that this method is more preferable in case of severe psoriasis only.

Side effects

Doctors are worried about the side effects because of use of biotech medicines. Some doctors expressed concerns over significant increase of tuberculosis and some are in the opinion that these medicines may lead to cancer. More researches need to be done on this and the doubts expressed by the doctors need to be cleared as soon as possible. This may surely give relief to several psoriasis patients who are suffering from this disease from long back.



Clinical Implications of Cyclooxygenase Enzymes

Have you ever heard of Professor John Van? He was awarded prestigious Nobel Prize for explaining the working of NSAIDs like Aspirin. He studied the blockage of enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX-1) and it’s after effects due to the usage of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs are easily available without the medical prescription also in most of the countries and are commonly used for treating fever and body pains. As the name itself suggests, they are different from steroids. Unlike steroids, these are non-narcotic. These no-addictive drugs helped medical sector immensely and after John Van’s contribution, more than thirty medicines were entered into the market.


Cyclooxygenase Enzymes


By blocking COX-1, prostaglandins (PG) will be formed whose lifespan is very less. These autocoids and PGE2 are responsible for inflammatory conditions. The side effects of these tablets include but not limited to gastrointestinal, eye related problems, hematopoietic disorders etc. That’s the reason why the usage of these tablets was not recommended for long time and doctors confine their usage to shorter periods. But this won’t be a problem anymore. The latest discovery of COX-2 enzyme had minimized these side effects.

Medical conditions where NSAIDs are used

The usage of NSAIDs is not limited to treatment of fever and body pains. Headache, back pains can also be relived using these medicines. Some Arthritis patients regularly use these medicines to subside their pains (in knee joints). Pains due to injuries or tissue loss can also be subsided by using these tablets. Patients suffering from muscle stiffness and injuries like Tennis-Elbow also prefer these pills for quick recovery. These tablets are even given to newly born babies if their ductus arteriosus is still open after birth. Some researchers are still trying to prove that these pills help in decreasing cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer.

Limitations of NSAIDs

NSAIDs should not be used if the patient’s age is greater than 50 and had gastrointestinal problems in past. It is better not to take NSAIDs if (s)he is suffering from bowel disturbances. In case of stomach bleeding or ulcers, these pills are not at all suitable as they complicate the diseases. Patients who are suffering from problems like hypertension and kidney related disorders should avoid these pills. Medical experts won’t recommend these pills in case of pregnant mothers and heart stroke patients. Patients who are on other medications like quinolones should not take NSAIDs as the combination can breakdown the entire nervous system.

One must note that though Paracetamol is over the counter drug and easily available, it is not considered as NSAIDs pill because of its little anti-inflammatory property. But medicines like aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen etc. belong to NSAIDs group. Based on the chemical compositions used, the half-life of some NSAIDs was close to 2-3 hours whereas the half-life of some NSAIDs pills was close to 50-60 hours.

During 1990’s, doctors used to prescribe heavy doses of NSAIDs after surgery to relieve pain. However with the heavy usage of NSAIDs; patient’s suffered from dyspepsia and several other health problems. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers and bleeding were commonly reported in those patients. Some patients even died because of heavy usage of NSAIDs.

It is still not recommended to take COX-1 and COX-2 NSAIDs simultaneously. NSAIDs except Aspirin have negative impact on heart if they are used for longer durations. Men, who use NSAIDs regularly, are potentially at risk of suffering from sexual (esp. ED) problems. Even this was scientifically proved (after taking so many factors into consideration). It is proven that medicines with COX-2 are having analgesic and antipyretic effects also.

COX-1 vs COX-2

COX-2 Drugs were recently approved by FDA, USA. After the discovery of COX-2, several new medicines were produced and unlike the earlier NSAIDs, the side effects were significantly reduced. COX-2 medicines were proved to be safer than COX-1 medicines. Even the doctors are prescribing these COX-2 medicines only because of their advantages over COX-1 medicines.

There is a clear difference in DNA and mRNA structures of these two but the end results are same. Even the structure of these two enzymes is almost 60% similar. The effects of these enzymes on arachidonic acid are almost same but their functionality is different. COX-2 is localized to nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. COX-1 is localized to later one only. For prostaglandin synthesis, these two use different versions of arachidonate.

The best thing about COX-2 is it doesn’t affect the prostaglandins that cause these GI problems in any way. It just stops the synthesis and the user won’t face any discomforts like GI problems or irregular bowel moments. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) is the main function of NSAIDs. Frankly, there are several aspects of the working of NSAIDs are yet to be revealed. Along with COX-3 pathway, several other innovative models were being proposed to explain the working of NSAIDs.

Psoriasis treatments

There is no direct relation between the Psoriasis treatment and actions of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. However, dermatologists are in the opinion that by knowing the complete functions of COX, several skin diseases can be treated (including Psoriasis). Even dermatologists find it difficult to cure Psoriasis and in most of the cases, they were successful in reducing the effects of Psoriasis instead of completely curing it. Though usage of Topical creams on infected areas has some positive effects; they are not 100% successful in completely healing the ill-effects of Psoriasis.

Patients suffering from psoriasis face not only physical discomfort but also mental disturbances. They can’t sleep properly and the way their family members treat them also plays a crucial role in healing. Little or no effect even after taking medicines for months can seriously affect their mental balance. The embarrassment they face in their daily life can affect their self –confidence also. Physical discomfort and regular scratching can even lead to more outbreaks.

Patients suffering from psoriatic arthritis showed positive results with COX-2 NSAIDs pills when compared to COX-1. Though the exact reason for this have to be researched, it is creating new hopes in Psoriasis and Arthritis patients.



1. Vane JR. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs. Nat New Biol. 1971;231:232-235.

2. Portanova JP, Zhang Y, Anderson GD, et al. Selective neutralization of prostaglandin E2 blocks inflammation, hyperalgesia and interleukin 6 production in vivo. J Exp Med. 1996;184:883-891.

3. Raz A, Wyche A, Siegel N, et al. Regulation of fibroblast cyclooxygenase synthesis by interleukin-1. J Biol Chem. 1988;263: 3022-3028.



Researchers used hot sauce for pain relief

Medical Researchers testing the hot sauce for pain relief created storm in the media circles. Capsaicin is an active compound which can be found in every spicy item starting from peppers to chilies. According to USAToday, “Some doctors are trying to use highly purified version of Capsaicin in the knee replacement surgery. The medical volunteers were given anesthesia and sprayed Capsaicin before performing surgery.” Doctors took extreme care and used ultra-purified version of Capsaicin. If you try this at home, you scream in pain and there are chances of getting infection also. The main aim of this research is to check whether these hot sauces can tame the pain of surgery quickly or not? The primary results are positive and the doctors are hoping for much better results as the research progress.

The initial study is conducted on men for whom hernia repair surgeries are recommended. A total of 41 men were taken into consideration and most of them reported positively as per the report given by American Society of Anesthesiologists. As a pilot project, small amounts of Capsaicin are given to 50 knee replacement surgery patients and the dosage of morphine is decreased. Despite of less use of painkillers, they reported no pain and this gave a new boost to researchers. Even the experiments conducted on rats and dogs were giving positive results but in the opinion of medical experts more researches need to be conducted before recommending Capsaicin for public use.

But how doctors can use these spicy items for relieving pain? Just bite a chili and you will surely experience the burning sensation. Once the burning sensation subsides, your tongue will feel numb for some time. Even doctors are using the same concept.  The Capsaicin used during the surgery will make the nerves in the surgical area numb for some time. Thus the patients can recover with less use of pain killers. Dr. Eske revealed that this practice is not new as chili creams are part of aching muscle treatment from long back. The present generation doctors just improved the concept by concentrating on the pain causing cell systems only.

The usage of Capsaicin is not limited to surgeries and cancer treatments. Even the patients suffering from skin diseases like Psoriasis can also be benefitted from this project. Itching sensation is common in Psoriasis patients and with scratching, the infection increases. Though doctors recommend topical creams, they are not that much effective in all the cases. In the opinion of doctors, by giving a small dose of capsaicin, the itching sensation can be subsided and patients can recover quickly. Though all these experiments are in the initial stages, Psoriasis patients can benefit from these experiments for sure. Doctors usually try to reduce the itching sensation and red patches by prescribing some medicines but they are not effective in all Psoriasis patients. Medical personnel are hoping that with these researches, problems of the Psoriasis patients can be solved up to some extent.


References (International Federation of Psoriasis Associations)

Fabutan agrees to stop promoting unproven health benefits of indoor tanning

Fabutan which is the largest indoor tanning chain in Canada was fined heavily by authorities for making false claims and not displaying the facts properly. Fabutan has more than 150 stores all over Canada and offers artificial Tanning Bed services to its users.

As per the official agreement, it has to display the true picture of effects of tanning beds. As per the evidences collected by Competition Bureau officials, the company advertised the positive effects of Tanning beds like tanning and Vitamin D production and the ill-effects of tanning beds were not displayed. As per the agreement, the company must advertise the facts that the exposure in sun or tanning bed is not compulsory for the Vitamin D production. The company even failed to educate its users about the ill-effects of using tanning beds. Tanning will increase the skin ageing and the chances of getting skin cancers will also get increased. The company failed to advertise these important aspects and was fined heavily by the authorities.

According to the scientific reports, whatever the method may be, tanning provides SPF in the range of 2-4. But in Canada, it is recommended to apply a sunscreen of SPF 15 if coming out during day time is compulsory. So Fabutan who had made some false claims and didn’t reveal the side effects of artificial tanning was fined $62,500. This is a significant amount considering the fact that the maximum fine in Canada is $100,000. The Competition Bureau which is responsible for implementing the Canada’s Competition Act took these issues seriously and warned Fabutan not to make false claims.

Some from now on, whenever the Fabutan authorities describe the effects of tanning and Vitamin D production, they need to show concurrent proofs and they must also explain the ill-effects of tanning to its users. As per the press release given by Mercer, Competition Bureau; it is compulsory to show the health warnings and the branches of Fabutan will be randomly and periodically checked to know whether they are displaying the warning signs properly or not.

Though there is no direct relation between the use of tanning beds and Psoriasis, some users reported that the severity of the Psoriasis decreased with frequent use of tanning beds. According to scientific studies, psoriasis and eczema can be treated with light therapy. UVB spectrum in the range of 310 nm to 315 nm is proved to be effective in treating Psoriasis. But all the tanning beds don’t provide these particular wavelengths and it is the moral responsibility of the Fabutan personnel to educate their users about the same. Use of topical cream Psoralen and tanning beds resulted in positive outcomes.

One must note here that it doesn’t mean that all the tanning beds have the capability to cure skin diseases. Some users may not feel comfortable after artificial tanning sessions. It is the responsibility of Fabutan personnel to check whether the person is suitable to enter into tanning bed or not. If they don’t follow rules correctly, Competition Bureau officials will impose fine once again and they even cancel the license of Fabutan.



AAP issues advice on managing fevers in children

Fever in children is quite common and it creates more troubles for kid’s parents than kids. As per the repot “Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children” given by AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), fever is the primary reason for visiting pediatricians. It even stressed the need to educate parents about the common problems faced by children to reduce “fever phobia” in parents. According to doctors, fever sometimes help in combating the infections in children. Though usage of antipyretics is recommended by doctors also; they must be given under the direction of the medical experts. The main aim of the parent should be making kid comfortable rather than getting the temperature to normal levels.

As per the report given by AAP, children are getting exposed to UV Radiation frequently and this is increasing the risk of several skin related diseases in children. It is not recommended to expose kids to sun directly until they reach six months of age. The official publication released by APP revealed that teenagers and young adults are getting exposed to harmful UVR of sun and this is leading to enormous increase in skin cancers including melanoma. AAP even recommends proper clothing, hats, sunglasses etc. to protect oneself from harmful radiations. AAP is also playing a key role in increasing awareness on UVR and its adverse effects.

In one of its press releases, AAP expressed its strong support on banning the salon tanning by minors. Along with AAP, WHO, AAD (American Academy of Dermatology) and some other medical groups expressed their happiness on this ban. This ban is not confined to saloon tanning alone as the minors are not allowed to use any artificial tanning devices.  This will surely discourage the teenagers in accessing tanning beds. In the scientific researches, it is revealed that the intensity of radiation in case of tanning bed is ten to fifteen times more than normal mid-day sun radiation.

AAP even stressed the need of parents monitoring on their children activities. The lucrative ads given by the saloons are attracting teenagers and it is the responsibility of the parents to educate their children about the ill-effects of tanning beds. Along with immediate side effects like fever, skin soreness etc., several types of skin infections and cancers can also be caused by tanning beds. Teenagers are primarily opting for saloon tanning to get rid of acne. Though this is somewhat helpful in the initial stages, tanning won’t prevent acne from reoccurring.

In the opinion of medical experts, there is no need to opt for artificial tanning for medical benefits. One can get all those advertised benefits even without going there also. However, artificial tanning is medically recommended for patients suffering from Psoriasis, keratosis etc. This is a part of light therapy and specially designed tanning beds were recommended for these patients. It is compulsory to consult your doctor before going for tanning bed session. Doctors usually recommend applying topical creams like “Psoralen” before entering into tanning bed and this helps in curing some infections.



Black Death’s Gene Code Cracked

Scientists finally decoded the genome of the bacteria that caused the plague. In the 14th century, people used to scare just by hearing the word plague itself. Bubonic Plague bacterium which causes plague kills more than three thousand people per year even now also. This finding will surely help in treating the plague disease and also immensely helpful in creating efficient vaccines for plague. Even the WHO is keen on looking for it. However, scientists are now in fear as this genes information can be used by anti-social elements to create bio-chemical weapons. If that happens, human kind will face one more pandemic in the form of plague.

The word “Black Death” still creates Goosebumps in medical researchers. It is the one of the worst ever pandemics in the history of whole mankind. It reduced the world population significantly. More than 30% of Europeans lost their lives in between 1346-53. Historians opined that it took more than a century to recover from the pandemic completely. Medical researchers now proved that a pathogen, Yersinia pestis bacterium, is responsible for this epidemic and it caused several versions of plague.

Europe suffered mostly because of this deadly disease. Until 1960’s, it was believed that close to 20-30% people died because of this endemic. However during 1960’s some researchers came up with their estimated figures and most of the results revealed that the percentage is close to 30-50%. In absolute numbers, though the official records are not there, 75 to 200 million people died because of this epidemic. The world population reduced from 475 million to 350 million.

Though there are several opinions on the exact place where exactly this pandemic started, all the researchers commonly agree with the fact that plague started in Central Asia. It travelled along the internationally popular Silk Route and landed in the Crimea by 1343. For the first time Europeans experienced a pandemic. From Crimea the bubonic bacteria travelled to Mediterranean and to rest of the Europe. As everyone knows black rats played a critical role in spreading the disease. Some researchers came up with a strange yet acceptable logic. According to them, more than 90% of population is living in rural areas at that time and the plague is successful in reaching the every corner of the European continent because of rats only. If rats were not the carriers of plague, the effect of plague will be surely reduced.

The name Black Death was given to this pandemic in the recent years and people from 14th century used to call this as “Great Pestilence”. The name Great Plague was also used by common public. Sweden and Dutch newspapers, while describing this pandemic used the world black for the first time in the 17th century. The term black was not used in the reports to signify the black colored marks that were observed in the patients but to signify the gloom, sadness it spread across the world. As per the sources available, J.I. Pontanus, used the word “atra mors” to describe the pandemic occurred in 1348. Atra means black and the term Black Death is being used from then onwards. German reporters used this term frequently and it slowly became popular. In 1823, after the term Black Death was accepted by England, this one got worldwide recognition. From then onwards, the words Black Death is being used to signify the terrible deaths took place during the 14th century.

According to the reports of that time unhygienic conditions also played a key role in spreading the disease. Rats are common in the houses and even in ships also, rats can be found. According to some theories, some Italian ships while returning from Constantinople carried some infected rats on their ships (unnoticing) and this resulted in the spreading on the epidemic. As per the scientific data available, the ships at that time can easily navigate 40-60 kilometers per day which is very low when compared with present day technologies. However within 15 days, the ship is able to travel 600 kilometers and this also played an important role in spreading the plague faster.

As per the official data available, Weymouth, Italy was first in the list to towns/cities that got affected from Black Death. Bristol was contaminated and the coastal towns of Ireland are next in the list. In no time, the epidemic spread to Paris and other important trade centers like Colchester and Harwich. By the end of 1349, England was badly affected by this disease. In the meantime, Norway was also affected and Germany also faced some serious troubles with this epidemic. By the end of 1350, whole northern regions of Europe were ravaged by Plague including Sweden and Denmark.

Scientists are yet to come to conclusion in some aspects as far as Black Death spread in Europe is concerned. There are no successful evidences to show that the people from Finland and Iceland are suffered from Plague. Low population density and minimum contacts with other regions might have saved these two countries.

Historians usually point out that so many warriors from Europe tried to conquer Russia but failed. The list may include warriors like Napoleon to Hitler. But the plague succeeded in doing so. In 1351, the cases of plague were reported in Pskov but subsided eventually. In 1952, the outbreak in Novgorod ravaged Russia and for the next two years almost every part of Russia is infected by this disease. Though several Muslim countries were also affected by plague, the exact number of deaths is not known.

The attack of Plague on the European regions was not confined to this period alone. Several outbreaks took place thereafter but none of them is as severe as the first one. The outbreaks occured in 1576–77; 1635–36 across different countries of Europe had killed many people but the total death toll in not in comparison to the first outbreak. Popular as third Plague outbreak, the plague claimed more than 10 million lives in India alone in between 1855 and 1859. From 1500 to 1850, some Muslim countries constantly suffered from Plague but the exact death toll numbers are not available from these countries.

Until the end of 18th century, people have different opinions on the spread of the Plague. Some medical experts are in the opinion that it is highly contagious and airborne. Though this is partially true, Plague is not airborne. Though a distinct type of plague, pneumonic plague spreads through air; the chances of getting effected by it is very less. In the early 19th century, medical experts came to know that Plague is spread in unhygienic conditions and rats play a crucial role in spreading the disease. Then they tried to explain the whole cycle of plague.

The black rat which is commonly seen in houses is not affected by bubonic plague bacteria whereas Wild Rodents are more prone to this. Rodent group affected by this bacterium will get killed in ten to fifteen days. When the infected rat fleas bites humans, the bacteria enters into human lymph nodes and results in plague. In the opinion of medical researchers, Groin and neck areas will develop a small bubo and it start growing. In most of the cases, these black bubo will appear within three to five days after the bacteria enters into body (trough rat bite) and in more than 80% of cases, people will die within a span of three days.

Now a days, several medicines are available to treat plague. Plague vaccine is proved to be effective in preventing this disease and the antibiotics can surely cure the disease. However doctors are in a worry as the bacteria is becoming more and more drug resistant. Drug resistant Plague bacterium was found in Madagascar in 1995 and the plague caused by it was reportedly observed in Madagascar in 2014. Though the plague outbreaks can be seen in every part of the world, the death toll decreased significantly.

In one of the recent studies some strange facts about Plague revealed. Patients who had already suffered from plague are more prone to Psoriasis than normal persons. This is indeed strange as the scientists are busy in finding out the factors that are causing excessive skin cell growth after the complete cure of plague. Some doctors are in the opinion that the medicines or vaccines altered function of T-Lymphocyte and that’s the reason why it is damaging the healthy skin cells also instead of attacking the dead skin cells or infected cells. Somehow, the researchers are now concentrating on psoriasis also and they will surely come up with some good result which is positive news for patients suffering from Psoriasis.

Some medical experts are in the opinion that Plague research can also help in Psoriasis treatment. Psoriasis is not 100% curable despite of so much advancement in the medical field. However, the hygienic practices and awareness in public health decreased the impact of psoriasis. Along with Plague, if the research team finds out the exact reasons for Psoriasis, millions of people suffering from this disease will get benefited for sure.



Papulosquamous Disorders

Papulosquamous disorders are a collection of skin infections with common symptoms like papules and scales. In some cases only papules are present whereas in some cases scales are present but in most of the cases scaly papules are present. Psoriasis and Lichen Planus are commonly observed Papulosquamous disorders.

It is a special condition where the growth of skin cells increases rapidly. This effect the whole life cycle of skin cells and patients suffer from unbearable itching sensation and pain. The infected area is usually red in color and dry. Doctors usually try to stop the rapid growth of skin cells and one must note that there is no complete cure for this disease. Unlike other skin diseases, this one is long-lasting i.e. users suffering from this disease for more than a decade were also there.

Symptoms of Papulosquamous Disorders

Almost all the Papulosquamous disorders have some common symptoms. Here is the list of symptoms that are commonly observed patients:

  • Red colored paths on skin (can be seen in psoriasis patients also).
  • Itching and soreness (This is common in almost all the skin infections).
  • Small cracks on skin and bleeding in case of scratching (Psoriasis symptom).
  • Scaling spots.
  • Stiff joints (This is observed in rare cases but common in Psoriasis patients).

Dermatologist Consultation

In case of any Papulosquamous disorder, it is better to consult doctor immediately as early diagnosis can help in preventing the spreading of the disease to other areas. It is better to consult the doctor immediately if:

  • You are too much worried about the color changes on your skin.
  • These skin problems are troubling you in doing your daily activities.
  • Itching sensation is unbearable and the papules/scales are expanding.
  • Unbearable pain is there along with some changes in skin color.
  • The nuisance because of your skin condition is increasing and public appearance is becoming difficult.

Causes of Papulosquamous Disorders

The exact causes for Papulosquamous disorders are not yet known. Though doctors came for a conclusion in case of some skin diseases, they are yet to come to a single conclusion in many disorders. Here are some of the causes that are causing Papulosquamous disorders.

  • Malfunction of T-Lymphocyte or T cells which attack the healthy skin cells is the main cause for Psoriasis. Healthy skin cells build up quickly than the normal rate resulting in excess skin cell growth.
  • In the opinion of doctors, severe sun burns can lead to Papulosquamous disorders.
  • Unhealthy habits like smoking, alcohol consumption etc. can also improve the chances of getting these disorders.
  • Infection (strep throat) and injuries, bug bites can also cause skin infections.
  • Certain medications can also trigger allergies and if you observe papules and scales after taking some medicines, it is better to consult the doctor immediately.

Other Causes

  • If one of your parents is suffering from Psoriasis, you are more prone to Psoriasis when compared to other persons whose family’s medical history is clean.
  • If you are suffering from HIV or other deadly diseases i.e. your immune system is compromised, you are more prone to Papulosquamous disorders.
  • Other reasons like stress, obesity etc. can also increase the changes of getting Papulosquamous disorders.

Complications of Papulosquamous Disorders

If you are suffering from Papulosquamous disorders, you are more prone to these diseases.

  • Psoriatic arthritis – It is a painful condition in which some joints won’t function. This is commonly observed in Psoriasis patients.
  • Conjunctivitis, blepharitis and other eye related problems can also occur.
  • Diabetes (Type 2) and Blood Pressure.
  • The risk of Heart Attack is more in case of patients suffering from Papulosquamous disorders.

Apart from these physical problems, patients suffering from Papulosquamous disorders also suffer from mental trauma. This results in depression and social isolation. Decrease in confidence levels, low self-esteem etc. can also been in Papulosquamous disorder patients.

Tests and Diagnosis of Papulosquamous Disorders

Physical examination itself is more than sufficient to diagnose skin infections correctly. Just by seeing the infected region, experienced doctors can easily know the disease. If the medical expert is in somewhat confusion, he may prefer skin biopsy. However, this method is used in rarest of the rare occasions. Some common Papulosquamous disorders are:

  • Lichen Planus: This itchy skin condition can be easily diagnosed as it has lesions (bumps).
  • Ringworm (Tinea Corporis): Circular (in general) itchy rashes caused by Fungi.
  • Pityriasis Rosea: This itching skin disorder starts at one place and slowly expands from that place. Its appearance is similar to drooping pine tree.
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis: Red, itching patches are seen and oily body parts are more prone to this infection.
  • Psoriasis: Over growth of skin cells resulting in painful, dry, patchy skin cracks.

Treatment of Papulosquamous Disorders

Some Papulosquamous disorders are completely curable where as some is treatable but not 100% curable. Whatever the skin-disease may be, doctors usually try to stop the Papulosquamous disorders from spreading to other parts of the body. Then the real treatment starts. In general, Papulosquamous disorders are treated in following ways:

  • Topical Creams: Doctors recommend using strong anti-inflammatory topical creams to subside the itching sensation. Medicated foams, corticosteroid ointments etc. come under this category only. If the infection is not severe, applying topical creams alone is sufficient for curing the infection completely.
  • Light therapy: Exposing the skin to controlled amounts of UVA or UVB lights; this treatment is effective in Psoriasis patients. Doctors check for improvement in skin conditions session after session.
  • Oral or injected medications: Some tablets and/or syrups are also prescribed by doctors to treat skin conditions. If the condition is so severe, they directly inject the medicines in the infected area for quick results. Etanercept, infliximab etc. come under this category.

Doctors usually start the treatment with mild dosages and if the infection is not responding, they increase the dosages. Most of the Papulosquamous disorders are treatable and patients won’t face any long term problems.

Get complete information from your doctor and know completely about that particular skin disorder. Making some changes in your lifestyle can immensely help in quick recovery. Try to get help from support groups, friends, family members, colleagues etc. for speedy recovery.